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Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Aug 11;396(2):260-75.

Regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in spinach chloroplasts by ribulose 1,5-diphosphate and NADPH/NADP+ ratios.


The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC FROM SPINACH CHLOROPLASTS IS STRONGLY REGULATED BY THE RATIO OF NADPH/NADP+, with the extent of this regulation controlled by the concentration of ribulose 1,5-diphosphate. Other metabolites of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle are far less effective in mediating the regulation of the enzyme activity by NADPH/NADP+ ratio. With a ratio of NADPH/NADP+ of 2, and a concentration of ribulose 1,5-diphosphate of 0.6 mM, the activity of the enzyme is completely inhibited. This level of ribulose 1,5-diphosphate is well within the concentration range which has been reported for unicellular green algae photosynthesizing in vivo. Ratios of NADPH/NADP+ of 2.0 have been measured for isolated spinach chloroplasts in the light and under physiological conditions. Since ribulose 1,5-diphosphate is a metabolite unique to the reductive pentose phosphate cycle and inhibits glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the presence of NADPH/NADP+ ratios found in chloroplasts in the light, it is proposed that regulation of the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle is accomplished in vivo by the levels of ribulose 1,5-diphosphate, NADPH, and NADP+. It already has been shown that several key reactions of the reductive pentose phosphate cycle in chloroplasts are regulated by levels of NADPH/NADP+ or other electron-carrying cofactors, and at least one key-regulated step, the carboxylation reaction is strongly affected by 6-phosphogluconate, the metabolic unique to the oxidative pentose phosphate cycle. Thus there is an interesting inverse regulation system in chloroplasts, in which reduced/oxidized coenzymes provide a general regulatory mechanism. The reductive cycle is activated at high NADPH/NADP+ ratios where the oxidative cycle is inhibited, and ribulose 1,5-diphosphate and 6-phosphogluconate provide further control of the cycles, each regulating the cycle in which it is not a metabolite.

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