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Sci Total Environ. 2014 Jan 1;466-467:871-80. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.041. Epub 2013 Aug 25.

Developing a flow control strategy to reduce nutrient load in a reclaimed multi-reservoir system using a 2D hydrodynamic and water quality model.

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School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 261 Cheomdan-gwagiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712, South Korea.


Blocking the natural bi-directional flow in an estuarine system using an artificial dyke has commonly caused serious water quality problems. In the southwestern part of South Korea, a parallel triple-reservoir system was constructed by blocking the mouth of three different rivers (Yeongsan, Okcheon, and Kumja), which were then interconnected using two open channels. This system has experienced a deterioration in water quality due to pollutants accumulated from the upper watershed, and has continually discharged pollutant loads to the outer ocean. Therefore, the objective of this study is to establish an effective dam operation plan for reducing nutrient loads released from the integrated reservoir. In this study, the CE-QUAL-W2 model, which is a 2-dimentional hydrodynamic and water quality model, was applied to predict the pollutant load released from each reservoir in response to different flow scenarios for the interconnecting channel. The model was calibrated using two novel methods: a sensitivity analysis to determine meaningful model parameters, and a pattern search to optimize the parameters. From the scenario analysis using flow control, it was determined that the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loadings could be reduced by 27.2% and 6.6%, respectively, under the optimal channel flow scenario by regulating the chlorophyll-a concentration in the reservoir. The results confirm that effective dam operation could contribute to a decrease in pollutant loads in the receiving seawater body. As such, this study suggests operational strategies for a multi-reservoir system that can be used to reduce the nutrient load being discharged from reservoirs.


Flow control; Integrated reservoirs; Pattern search algorithm; Sensitivity analysis; Water quality modeling (CE-QUAL-W2)

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