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J Plant Physiol. 2014 Feb 15;171(3-4):205-12. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2013.07.005. Epub 2013 Aug 21.

Stress and salicylic acid induce the expression of PnFT2 in the regulation of the stress-induced flowering of Pharbitis nil.

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Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181, Japan; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata 950-2181, Japan. Electronic address:


Poor nutrition and low temperature stress treatments induced flowering in the Japanese morning glory Pharbitis nil (synonym Ipomoea nil) cv. Violet. The expression of PnFT2, one of two homologs of the floral pathway integrator gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), was induced by stress, whereas the expression of both PnFT1 and PnFT2 was induced by a short-day treatment. There was no positive correlation between the flowering response and the homolog expression of another floral pathway integrator gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 and genes upstream of PnFT, such as CONSTANS. In another cultivar, Tendan, flowering and PnFT2 expression were not induced by poor nutrition stress. Aminooxyacetic acid (AOA), a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibitor, inhibited the flowering and PnFT2 expression induced by poor nutrition stress in Violet. Salicylic acid (SA) eliminated the inhibitory effects of AOA. SA enhanced PnFT2 expression under the poor nutrition stress but not under non-stress conditions. These results suggest that SA induces PnFT2 expression, which in turn induces flowering; SA on its own, however, may not be sufficient for induction.


FLOWERING LOCUS T; Flowering; Pharbitis nil; Salicylic acid; Stress

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