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Clin Perinatol. 2013 Sep;40(3):493-508. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2013.05.003. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Nonpharmacological management of pain during common needle puncture procedures in infants: current research evidence and practical considerations.

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Nursing, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


All infants undergo painful procedures involving skin puncture as part of routine medical care. Pain from needle puncture procedures is suboptimally managed. Numerous nonpharmacologic interventions are available for these painful procedures, including swaddling, holding, skin-to-skin care, pacifier, sweet-tasting solutions, and breast-feeding. Adoption of nonpharmacologic pain-relieving interventions into routine clinical practice is feasible and should be a standard of care in the delivery of quality health care for infants. This review summarizes current knowledge about the epidemiology of pain from common needle puncture procedures in infants, the effectiveness of nonpharmacologic interventions, implementation considerations, and unanswered questions for future research.


Infants; Needle puncture procedures; Needle-related pain; Nonpharmacologic pain management

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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