Send to

Choose Destination
Cancer Gene Ther. 2013 Oct;20(10):552-63. doi: 10.1038/cgt.2013.52. Epub 2013 Aug 23.

Hydrodynamic immunization leads to poor CD8 T-cell expansion, low frequency of memory CTLs and ineffective antiviral protection.

Author information

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.


Hepatotropic pathogens, such as hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV), often escape cellular immune clearance resulting in chronic infection. As HBV and HCV infections are the most common causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), prevention of these infections is believed to be key to the prevention of HCC. It is believed that an effective immune therapy must induce strong cytotonic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that can migrate into the liver, where they can clear infected hepatocytes. Here, we compared the induction of CD8 T cells by two different DNA immunization methods for T-cell differentiation, function, memory programming and their distribution within relevant tissues in a highly controlled fashion. We used hydrodynamic tail vein injection of plasmid to establish liver-specific LCMV-gp antigen (Ag) transient expression, and studied CD8 T cells induced using the P14 transgenic mouse model. CD8 T cells from this group exhibited unique and limited expansion, memory differentiation, polyfunctionality and cytotoxicity compared with T cells generated in intramuscularly immunized mice. This difference in liver-generated expansion resulted in lower memory CD8 T-cell frequency, leading to reduced protection against lethal viral challenge. These data show an unusual induction of naive CD8 T cells contributed to the lower frequency of Ag-specific CTLs observed after immunization in the liver, suggesting that limited priming in liver compared with peripheral tissues is responsible for this outcome.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center