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Int J Neurosci. 2014 Apr;124(4):302-6. doi: 10.3109/00207454.2013.836706. Epub 2013 Oct 2.

Hashimoto's encephalopathy: four cases and review of literature.

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1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Cukurova University , Adana , Turkey.


Hashimoto's encephalopathy is a rare clinically heterogenous condition consisting of encephalopathy, seizures and variable neurological and psychiatric manifestations, accompanied by high titres of serum antithyroid antibodies. We described the clinical and laboratory findings of four children (aged 8-17 years) with Hashimoto's encephalopathy. The clinical features of three patients at presentation included refractory epilepsy, and confusion, and one patient presented with behavioral and cognitive changes. During their presentation, two of them were in euthyroid, and the others were in hypothyroid status. All patients manifested increased antithyroid antibodies. Two patients improved with steroid treatment. The others responded to plasmapheresis instead of corticosteroid treatment. Physicians' awareness of this complication is of great importance because most patients respond dramatically to the treatment.

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