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J Cogn Neurosci. 1992 Summer;4(3):232-43. doi: 10.1162/jocn.1992.4.3.232.

Declarative and nondeclarative memory: multiple brain systems supporting learning and memory.

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Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego and Department of Psychiatry, University of California School of Medicine.


The topic of multiple forms of memory is considered from a biological point of view. Fact-and-event (declarative, explicit) memory is contrasted with a collection of non conscious (non-declarative, implicit) memory abilities including skills and habits, priming, and simple conditioning. Recent evidence is reviewed indicating that declarative and non declarative forms of memory have different operating characteristics and depend on separate brain systems. A brain-systems framework for understanding memory phenomena is developed in light of lesion studies involving rats, monkeys, and humans, as well as recent studies with normal humans using the divided visual field technique, event-related potentials, and positron emission tomography (PET).


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