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Cancer. 2013 Nov 15;119(22):3929-42. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28312. Epub 2013 Aug 20.

Multidisciplinary approaches to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

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Department of Surgery, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia.


After hepatocellular carcinoma, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy. The etiology of ICC in most patients is not known, but its incidence is on the rise worldwide. There are 3 morphologic subtypes of ICC that can be characterized on cross-sectional imaging, mass forming, periductal infiltrating, and intraductal growth; and the radiographic characteristics of ICC may vary based on the subtype. Complete surgical resection remains the only potentially curative option for patients with ICC. Routine lymphadenectomy at the time of surgical resection should be strongly considered, because lymph node status provides important prognostic information. After surgery, the 5-year survival rate for ICC remains poor at only 25% to 35% in most series. Although numerous clinical trials have been conducted using a variety of chemotherapy regimens to treat ICC, systemic options for ICC remain limited. Doublet gemcitabine and cisplatin therapy is currently considered the standard-of-care first-line therapy for patients with advanced disease. Because ICC is typically confined to the liver and systemic chemotherapy traditionally has had only limited efficacy, there has been increasing interest in locoregional therapy. Although locoregional therapy may include intra-arterial therapies, stereotactic radiotherapy, hepatic artery pump therapy, or ablation, most data are limited. The purpose of this article was to provide a multidisciplinary appraisal of the current therapeutic approaches to ICC.


chemotherapy; imaging; intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; locoregional; multidisciplinary; resection

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