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Diabetes Educ. 2013 Sep-Oct;39(5):696-704. doi: 10.1177/0145721713496872. Epub 2013 Aug 20.

The relationship between hemoglobin A1C in youth with type 1 diabetes and chaos in the family household.

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Laura Levin, DO, Children's Hospital of Wisconsin, Mail Stop 9000 W. Wisconsin Ave PO BOX 1997, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1997, USA.



The purpose of the study was to examine how physical and social environments, as measured by household chaos, affect the diabetes control (i.e., A1C) in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1DM).


One hundred and four patients (53 male, 51 female) with T1DM (aged 1-13 years) and their caregivers were recruited from a diabetes clinic at a Midwestern children's hospital. The caregivers completed a demographic questionnaire as well as a questionnaire pertaining to chaos in the household. A medical record review at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-up was also conducted.


Results found that above and beyond the demographic covariates, there still remained a significant relationship between household chaos and glycemic control. Those who scored more than 1 standard deviation above the mean Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale (CHAOS) measure score showed significantly worse glycemic control at 6-month follow-up.


This study demonstrated the relationship of family environment and glycemic control for youth with T1DM. The findings highlight the need to individually assess the youth's home environment to promote diabetes management and care during clinic visits.

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