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J Forensic Dent Sci. 2013 Jan;5(1):11-5. doi: 10.4103/0975-1475.114543.

Comparison of lip prints in two different populations of India: Reflections based on a preliminary examination.

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Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Navodaya Dental College, Karnataka, India.



Dental records, fingerprint, and DNA comparisons are probably the most common techniques used for a person's identification, allowing fast and secure identification processes. However, sometimes it is necessary to apply different and less known techniques such as lip prints. The potential of lip prints to determine sex has been well exhibited and documented. However, very few studies have been conducted using lip prints for population identification.


To determine the predominant lip print patterns in males and females in relation to Kerala and Manipuri population and also to compare the lip print patterns between these populations.


The sample comprised of 60 subjects, which included 30 each from Kerala and Manipuri. Lipstick was applied evenly, and the lip print was obtained by dabbing a strip of cellophane. The classification scheme proposed by Tsuchihashi was used to classify the lip print patterns and the data were statistically analyzed using the z-test for proportions.


Type 4 and Type 5 lip print patterns were predominant in males, whereas in females it was Type 1 and Type 1'. Type 1 pattern was most common in both the populations, with an incidence of 28.33%. Furthermore, Type 1 pattern was found to be more in Kerala females and Manipuri males when compared to their counterparts. Type 1 was most common in upper right, upper left, and lower left quadrants whereas in lower right quadrant, Type 1' and Type 4 were predominant in Kerala and Type 5 in Manipuri population.


Difference between the lip print patterns in two populations exists, although subtle. However, larger sample size is necessary to derive concrete conclusions.


Kerala population; lip prints; manipuri population; population identification; sex identification

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