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Mol Immunol. 2013 Dec;56(4):745-56. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2013.07.012. Epub 2013 Aug 16.

Accessory molecules for Toll-like receptors in Teleost fish. Identification of TLR4 interactor with leucine-rich repeats (TRIL).

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Cell Biology and Immunology Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, The Netherlands.


The biosynthesis and activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) requires accessory proteins. In mammals, a number of accessory proteins have been characterized, that can be classified based on their function as ligand-recognition and delivery cofactors, chaperones and trafficking proteins. We identified the homologs in teleost fish genomes of mammalian accessory molecules and show their expression in transcriptome data sets. Further, we annotate in detail TLR4 interactor with leucine-rich repeats (tril) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). In mammals, TRIL is a functional component of the TLR4 complex and is important for TLR3 signaling, and is mainly expressed in the brain. In fish, the Tril molecule has many conserved features of mouse and human TRIL, containing 13 leucine-rich repeat domains, a fibronectin and a transmembrane domain. Zebrafish tril could not be detected in the latest assembly of the zebrafish genome (Zv9) and required manual annotation based on genome and transcriptome shotgun sequencing data sets. Carp tril was found in two copies in the draft genome. Both copies of carp tril are constitutively expressed in several organs, with the highest gene expression in muscle, skin and brain. In carp, the tril gene is expressed at high levels in endothelial cells and thrombocytes. We discuss the implication of the presence of most, but not all, accessory molecules for the biosynthesis and activation of tlr molecules in fish.


Accessory molecules; Carp; Fish; TLR; Teleost; Tril; Zebrafish

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