Send to

Choose Destination
J Hazard Mater. 2013 Dec 15;263 Pt 1:105-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.07.036. Epub 2013 Jul 24.

Determination of microcystins and nodularin (cyanobacterial toxins) in water by LC-MS/MS. Monitoring of Lake Marathonas, a water reservoir of Athens, Greece.

Author information

Quality Control Department, Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (EYDAP SA), Oropou 156, 11146 Galatsi, Athens, Greece.


A method for the determination of the hepatotoxic cyanotoxins microcystins (MCs, i.e. MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR, MC-LA) and nodularin (NOD) in water was developed using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) after solid phase extraction (SPE). New patterns of fragmentation of MC-LA were observed under the experimental conditions used. The method was fully validated to meet accreditation criteria. Mean recoveries at three concentration levels (0.006, 0.1 and 1 μg L(-1)) ranged between 70 and 114% with %RSD values generally below 20%. Detection limits were 2 ng L(-1) for all hepatotoxins. The method was applied to study the occurrence of MCs and NOD in Lake Marathonas, a water reservoir of Athens, over a period from July 2007 to December 2010. The protein phosphatase inhibition assay (PPIA) was additionally used for fast screening of samples. MC-YR, MC-LR and MC-RR were detected and found to vary seasonally with consistent peaks during early autumn, having maximum concentrations of 717, 451 and 174 ng L(-1), respectively. The results of this study constitute the first report on the presence, concentration levels and seasonal variations of MCs in Lake Marathonas. None of the target cyanotoxins were detected in treated drinking water samples during the period of the study.


LC–ESI-MS/MS; Lake Marathonas; Microcystins; Nodularin; PPIA

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center