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Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013 May;47(5):420-6.

[Analysis on the whole genome of the influenza H1N1 virus of the mild and severe cases in Beijing in 2009].

[Article in Chinese]

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Institute for Infectious Disease and Endemic Disease Control, Beijing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.



To explore the characteristics of the whole genome of the influenza H1N1 virus of the mild and severe cases in Beijing.


A total of 21 samples of throat swabs were collected from surveillance-designated hospitals between June and December in 2009, including 10 severe cases (4 death cases) and 11 mild cases. RNA of the virus were extracted,and the amplified primers of the whole genome were designed.Reverse transcription and PCR were performed to the RNA and then the PCR product was sequenced by software to analyze the evolution of the viral genes and the variation of the amino acids.


Compared with the reference vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 (H1N1), the genetic nucleotide homology in the eight segments of the pandemic H1N1 virus in Beijing in 2009 was higher than 99%, without significant variation. Among them,the genetic distance of hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) was comparatively far, separately 0.0050, 0.0040 and 0.0040.The gene of HA, P83S, the gene of NA, N248D, the gene of polymerase (PA), P224S and the gene of NP, V100I and L122Q were found to mutate in all the samples. Genes of HA, NA, NP, PA, PB 2 and nonstructural protein (NS1) in severe cases showed obviously clustered evolution. The mutation of gene S128P and S203T of HA, gene R269R and D547E of PA, gene T588I of PB 2 and gene I123V of NS mainly happened in severe cases, separately counting 6, 9, 6, 7, 9 and 6 cases. The relevance between the mutation happened in S203T of HA, R269K and D547E of PA and the severeness of the cases showed statistical significance (P < 0.05). The mutations of HA gene were mainly on the Ca and Cb antigene domains. No drug resistant mutation was found on NA gene but happened on matrix protein 2 (M2 gene). None of the mutations were found on the virulence related genes.


A high homology was found between the pandemic H1N1 virus in Beijing in 2009 and the reference vaccine strain A/California/07/2009(H1N1). Mutational sites related with the severe and fatal cases were found, but not the virulence related mutation.

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