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J Infect Dis. 2014 Feb 1;209(3):369-76. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit441. Epub 2013 Aug 15.

High rates of incident and prevalent anal human papillomavirus infection among young men who have sex with men.

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Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The George Washington University, Washington, District of Columbia.



There are few published estimates of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rates among young men who have sex with men (YMSM).


We estimated incidence and prevalence of type-specific anal HPV infection using clinician-collected anal swabs for HPV DNA testing obtained during a 1-year prospective study of 94 YMSM (mean age, 21 years) in Seattle.


Seventy percent of YMSM had any HPV infection detected during the study, and HPV-16 and/or -18 were detected in 37%. The incidence rate for any new HPV infection was 38.5 per 1000 person-months and 15.3 per 1000 person-months for HPV-16/18; 19% had persistent HPV-16/18 infection. No participant tested positive for all 4 HPV types in the quadrivalent vaccine. The number of lifetime male receptive anal sex partners was significantly associated with HPV infection. The prevalence of HPV-16/18 was 6% among YMSM with a history of 1 receptive anal sex partner and 31% among YMSM with ≥ 2 partners.


Although the high prevalence of HPV among YMSM highlights the desirability of vaccinating all boys as a strategy to avert the morbidity of HPV infection, most YMSM appear to remain naive to either HPV-16 or -18 well into their sexual lives and would benefit from HPV immunization.


HPV; HPV quadrivalent vaccine; incidence; prevalence; young men who have sex with men

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