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Biochimie. 2014 May;100:132-40. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2013.07.024. Epub 2013 Aug 14.

Mitochondrial translation initiation machinery: conservation and diversification.

Author information

1
University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Nooruse 1, Tartu, Estonia; Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1/12 Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow, Russia.
2
University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Nooruse 1, Tartu, Estonia.
3
Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1/12 Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow, Russia.
4
Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, United Kingdom.
5
University of Tartu, Institute of Technology, Nooruse 1, Tartu, Estonia; Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Electronic address: vasili.hauryliuk@molbiol.umu.se.
6
Molecular Biology Department, Faculty of Biology, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1/12 Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow, Russia. Electronic address: peter@protein.bio.msu.ru.

Abstract

The highly streamlined mitochondrial genome encodes almost exclusively a handful of transmembrane components of the respiratory chain complex. In order to ensure the correct assembly of the respiratory chain, the products of these genes must be produced in the correct stoichiometry and inserted into the membrane, posing a unique challenge to the mitochondrial translational system. In this review we describe the proteins orchestrating mitochondrial translation initiation: bacterial-like general initiation factors mIF2 and mIF3, as well as mitochondria-specific components - mRNA-specific translational activators and mRNA-nonspecific accessory initiation factors. We consider how the fast rate of evolution in these organelles has not only created a system that is divergent from that of its bacterial ancestors, but has led to a huge diversity in lineage specific mechanistic features of mitochondrial translation initiation among eukaryotes.

KEYWORDS:

IF2; IF3; Mitochondria; Ribosome; Translational activators

PMID:
23954798
PMCID:
PMC3978653
DOI:
10.1016/j.biochi.2013.07.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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