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J Biomech. 2013 Sep 27;46(14):2381-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.07.033. Epub 2013 Jul 30.

Validation of shear wave elastography in skeletal muscle.

Author information

1
Mayo Medical School, Mayo Graduate School, and the Medical Scientist Training Program, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States; Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Orthopedic Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States.

Abstract

Skeletal muscle is a very dynamic tissue, thus accurate quantification of skeletal muscle stiffness throughout its functional range is crucial to improve the physical functioning and independence following pathology. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is an ultrasound-based technique that characterizes tissue mechanical properties based on the propagation of remotely induced shear waves. The objective of this study is to validate SWE throughout the functional range of motion of skeletal muscle for three ultrasound transducer orientations. We hypothesized that combining traditional materials testing (MTS) techniques with SWE measurements will show increased stiffness measures with increasing tensile load, and will correlate well with each other for trials in which the transducer is parallel to underlying muscle fibers. To evaluate this hypothesis, we monitored the deformation throughout tensile loading of four porcine brachialis whole-muscle tissue specimens, while simultaneously making SWE measurements of the same specimen. We used regression to examine the correlation between Young's modulus from MTS and shear modulus from SWE for each of the transducer orientations. We applied a generalized linear model to account for repeated testing. Model parameters were estimated via generalized estimating equations. The regression coefficient was 0.1944, with a 95% confidence interval of (0.1463-0.2425) for parallel transducer trials. Shear waves did not propagate well for both the 45° and perpendicular transducer orientations. Both parallel SWE and MTS showed increased stiffness with increasing tensile load. This study provides the necessary first step for additional studies that can evaluate the distribution of stiffness throughout muscle.

KEYWORDS:

Elastic moduli; Materials testing; Passive stiffness; Shear wave elastography; Ultrasonography

PMID:
23953670
PMCID:
PMC3818126
DOI:
10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.07.033
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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