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J Pediatr Urol. 2014 Feb;10(1):130-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.07.010. Epub 2013 Aug 14.

An association between kidney stone composition and urinary metabolic disturbances in children.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland. Electronic address: kkirejczyk@wp.pl.
2
Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland.
3
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine kidney stone composition in children and to correlate stone fractions with urinary pH and metabolic urinary risk factors.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

We studied 135 pediatric patients with upper urinary tract lithiasis in whom excreted or extracted stones were available for analyses. Composition of stones was analyzed. A 24-hour urine assessment included volume, pH and daily excretions of calcium, oxalate, uric acid, cystine, creatinine, phosphate, magnesium and citrate.

RESULTS:

Calcium oxalate was the major component of 73% stones, followed by struvite (13%) and calcium phosphate (9%). Uric acid was present in almost half of stones, but in rudimentary amounts. The calcium oxalate content in calculi showed a strong relationship with calciuria, and moderate association with oxaluria, magnesuria and acidification of urine. The percent content of struvite presented reverse and lower correlations with regard to the above parameters. Calcium phosphate stone proportion had low associations with urinary risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS:

Calciuria, oxaluria, magnesuria and low urine pH exerted the biggest influence on calcium oxalate content in pediatric renal stones. Relationships of urinary risk factors with calculi calcium phosphate content were of unclear significance. Urinary citrate excretion did not significantly correlate with kidney stone composition in children.

KEYWORDS:

Children; Metabolic examination; Stone composition; Urolithiasis

PMID:
23953243
DOI:
10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.07.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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