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Langmuir. 2013 Sep 10;29(36):11535-45. doi: 10.1021/la402362u. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

Biorecognition by DNA oligonucleotides after exposure to photoresists and resist removers.

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Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University , University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, United States.


Combining biological molecules with integrated circuit technology is of considerable interest for next generation sensors and biomedical devices. Current lithographic microfabrication methods, however, were developed for compatibility with silicon technology rather than bioorganic molecules, and consequently it cannot be assumed that biomolecules will remain attached and intact during on-chip processing. Here, we evaluate the effects of three common photoresists (Microposit S1800 series, PMGI SF6, and Megaposit SPR 3012) and two photoresist removers (acetone and 1165 remover) on the ability of surface-immobilized DNA oligonucleotides to selectively recognize their reverse-complementary sequence. Two common DNA immobilization methods were compared: adsorption of 5'-thiolated sequences directly to gold nanowires and covalent attachment of 5'-thiolated sequences to surface amines on silica coated nanowires. We found that acetone had deleterious effects on selective hybridization as compared to 1165 remover, presumably due to incomplete resist removal. Use of the PMGI photoresist, which involves a high temperature bake step, was detrimental to the later performance of nanowire-bound DNA in hybridization assays, especially for DNA attached via thiol adsorption. The other three photoresists did not substantially degrade DNA binding capacity or selectivity for complementary DNA sequences. To determine whether the lithographic steps caused more subtle damage, we also tested oligonucleotides containing a single base mismatch. Finally, a two-step photolithographic process was developed and used in combination with dielectrophoretic nanowire assembly to produce an array of doubly contacted, electrically isolated individual nanowire components on a chip. Postfabrication fluorescence imaging indicated that nanowire-bound DNA was present and able to selectively bind complementary strands.

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