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PLoS One. 2013 Aug 12;8(8):e71008. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071008. eCollection 2013.

Influence of enamel matrix derivative on cells at different maturation stages of differentiation.

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Faculté de medecine dentaire, Pavillon de médecine dentaire, rue de la Terrasse, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.


Enamel matrix derivative (EMD), a porcine extract harvested from developing porcine teeth, has been shown to promote formation of new cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Despite its widespread use, an incredibly large variability among in vitro studies has been observed. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of EMD on cells at different maturation stages of osteoblast differentiation by testing 6 cell types to determine if cell phenotype plays a role in cell behaviour following treatment with EMD. Six cell types including MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, rat calvarial osteoblasts, human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, ROS cells, MG63 cells and human alveolar osteoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of EMD and proliferation rates were quantified by an MTS assay. Gene expression of collagen1(COL1), alkaline phosphate(ALP) and osteocalcin(OC) were investigated by real-time PCR. While EMD significantly increased cell proliferation of all cell types, its effect on osteoblast differentiation was more variable. EMD significantly up-regulated gene expression of COL1, ALP and OC in cells early in their differentiation process when compared to osteoblasts at later stages of maturation. Furthermore, the effect of cell passaging of primary human PDL cells (passage 2 to 15) was tested in response to treatment with EMD. EMD significantly increased cell proliferation and differentiation of cells at passages 2-5 however had completely lost their ability to respond to EMD by passages 10+. The results from the present study suggest that cell stimulation with EMD has a more pronounced effect on cells earlier in their differentiation process and may partially explain why treatment with EMD primarily favors regeneration of periodontal defects (where the periodontal ligament contains a higher number of undifferentiated progenitor cells) over regeneration of pure alveolar bone defects containing no periodontal ligament and a more limited number of osteoprogenitor cells.

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