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PLoS One. 2013 Aug 7;8(8):e70767. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070767. eCollection 2013.

Prevalence and risk factors of CKD in Chinese patients with periodontal disease.

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Department of Periodontology, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.



Periodontal disease is common among adults and is associated with an increasing risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in patients with periodontal disease in China.


In the current cross-sectional study, patients with periodontal disease were included from Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital between March 2011 and August 2011. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), the presence of albuminuria, or hematuria. All patients with periodontal disease underwent a periodontal examination, including periodontal probing pocket depth, gingival recession, and clinical attachment level by Florida Probe. They completed a questionnaire and had blood and urine samples taken. The adjusted prevalence of indicators of kidney damage was calculated and risk factors associated with CKD were analyzed.


A total of 1392 patients with periodontal disease were invited to participate this study and 1268 completed the survey and examination. After adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence of reduced eGFR, albuminuria, and hematuria was 2.7% (95% CI 1.7-3.7), 6.7% (95% CI 5.5-8.1) and 10.9% (95% CI 9.2-12.5), respectively. The adjusted prevalence of CKD was 18.2% (95% CI 16.2-20.3). Age, male, diabetes, hypertension, history of CKD, hyperuricemia, and interleukin-6 levels (≥7.54 ng/L) were independent risk factors for reduced eGFR. Female, diabetes, hypertension, history of CKD, hyperuricemia, high level of cholesterol, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (≥ 1.03 mg/L) and TNF-α levels (≥ 1.12 ng/L) were independently associated with an increased risk of albuminuria. Female, lower education (<high school), and history of CKD were independent risk factors for hematuria.


18.2% of Chinese patients with periodontal disease have proteinuria, hematuria, or reduced eGFR, indicating the presence of kidney damage. Whether prevention or treatment of periodontal disease can reduce the high prevalence of CKD, however, remains to be further investigated.

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