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Circulation. 2013 Sep 17;128(12):1335-40. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.003059. Epub 2013 Aug 14.

Cost-effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with stable coronary artery disease and abnormal fractional flow reserve.

Author information

1
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine (W.F.F., M.A.H.) and the Department of Health Research and Policy (D.S., D.B.B., M.A.H.), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (N.H.J.P., P.A.L.T.); Cardiovascular Center Aalst, Aalst, Belgium (E.B., B.D.B.); and Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Switzerland and CTU Bern, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, Switzerland (P.J.).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Fractional Flow Reserve Versus Angiography for Multivessel Evaluation (FAME) 2 trial demonstrated a significant reduction in subsequent coronary revascularization among patients with stable angina and at least 1 coronary lesion with a fractional flow reserve ≤0.80 who were randomized to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with best medical therapy. The economic and quality-of-life implications of PCI in the setting of an abnormal fractional flow reserve are unknown.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We calculated the cost of the index hospitalization based on initial resource use and follow-up costs based on Medicare reimbursements. We assessed patient utility using the EQ-5D health survey with US weights at baseline and 1 month and projected quality-adjusted life-years assuming a linear decline over 3 years in the 1-month utility improvements. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio based on cumulative costs over 12 months. Initial costs were significantly higher for PCI in the setting of an abnormal fractional flow reserve than with medical therapy ($9927 versus $3900, P<0.001), but the $6027 difference narrowed over 1-year follow-up to $2883 (P<0.001), mostly because of the cost of subsequent revascularization procedures. Patient utility was improved more at 1 month with PCI than with medical therapy (0.054 versus 0.001 units, P<0.001). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of PCI was $36 000 per quality-adjusted life-year, which was robust in bootstrap replications and in sensitivity analyses.

CONCLUSIONS:

PCI of coronary lesions with reduced fractional flow reserve improves outcomes and appears economically attractive compared with best medical therapy among patients with stable angina.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01132495.

KEYWORDS:

coronary disease; fractional flow reserve, myocardial; percutaneous coronary intervention

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