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Acta Med Iran. 2013 Aug 7;51(7):494-500.

Prevalence of smoking in 15-64 years old population of north of Iran: meta-analysis of the results of non-communicable diseases risk factors surveillance system.

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Ministry of Science, Research and Technology of Iran, Iran.


Smoking is known as a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hence immediate and effective interventions are required for its elimination. This study aimed to collect valid data with regard to cigarette smoking in adult population of north of Iran for policy making by a meta-analysis of the documents of national non-communicable disease risk factors surveillance system. We investigated relevant evidences by searching in published and non-electronic databases. Data were extracted based on variables such as year of the study, sex, age group and prevalence of smoking habit. Based on results of heterogeneity, we applied fixed or random effects model to estimate the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking. All analyses were performed using STATA 11 software. A total of 20747 subjects (10381 males and 10366 females) in five age groups 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years were interviewed. Meta-analysis in men and women showed prevalence of 19.2% (15.8-22.6%) and 0.3% (0.2-0.5%) respectively. Results of the present meta-analysis showed as much as one fifth of male population of north of Iran are smoker. Subgroup analysis also revealed that the rate of smoking was higher among the middle-aged men.

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