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Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013 Nov;52(11):2048-55. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ket263. Epub 2013 Aug 13.

Increased serum levels of S100A8/A9 and S100A12 are associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with inactive systemic lupus erythematosus.

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Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Rheumatology, Lund University, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden.



Patients with SLE have an increased morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). The reason for this is not entirely understood, but is believed to be partly related to the long-lasting inflammatory process seen in SLE. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is an association between CVD and serum levels of the proinflammatory proteins S100A8/A9 and S100A12 in SLE.


Serum levels of S100A8/A9 and S100A12 were measured with ELISA in 237 SLE patients with clinically inactive disease and without infections, as well as in 100 healthy individuals. Cardiovascular manifestations were defined according to the SLICC/ACR Damage Index (SLICC/ACR-DI).


Serum levels of S100A8/A9 were elevated in our inactive SLE patients as compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.0001), which was not seen for S100A12 (P = 0.12). SLE patients with a history of CVD had increased serum levels of both S100A8/A9 and S100A12 compared with patients with no CVD or venous thromboembolism (P = 0.003 and P = 0.006, respectively). The presence of organ damage according to SLICC/ACR-DI was associated with an increase in both S100A8/A9 and S100A12 serum levels (P = 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively).


Elevated serum levels of S100A8/A9 and S100A12 may be used as an indicator of severe disease and CVD in SLE, suggesting that SLE patients with elevated serum S100A8/A9 and S100A12 concentrations may benefit from more intense cardiovascular primary preventive strategies and possibly also from more intense and early immunosuppressive treatment.


EN-RAGE; S100A12; S100A8/A9; calprotectin; cardiovascular disease; systemic lupus erythematosus

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