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Exp Clin Cardiol. 2013 Spring;18(2):129-38.

Pulmonary embolism, part I: Epidemiology, risk factors and risk stratification, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism.

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2nd Department of Medicine - Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, General University Hospital and 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague, Czech Republic.


Pulmonary embolism is an important clinical entity with considerable mortality despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. In the present article, the authors offer a comprehensive review focused mainly on epidemiology, risk factors, risk stratification, pathophysiological considerations and clinical presentation. Diagnosis based on assessment of clinical likelihood, electrocardiography, chest x-ray, D-dimer levels, markers of myocardial injury and overload, and blood gases is discussed in detail. Special attention is devoted to the clinical use of computed tomography, pulmonary angiography and echocardiography in the setting of pulmonary embolism.


Diagnosis; Epidemiology; Pulmonary embolism; Risk stratification


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