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Am Fam Physician. 2013 Jul 1;88(1):44-53.

Early recognition and management of sepsis in adults: the first six hours.

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1
Womack Army Medical Center, Fort Bragg, NC 28310, USA. robertgauer@yahoo.com

Abstract

Sepsis is a complication of severe infection characterized by a systemic inflammatory response. Mortality rates from sepsis range between 25% to 30% for severe sepsis and 40% to 70% for septic shock. The clinical presentation of sepsis is highly variable depending on the etiology. The most common sites of infection are the respiratory, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as the skin and soft tissue. Fever is often the first manifestation of sepsis, with pneumonia being the most common presentation leading to sepsis. Early goal-directed therapy completed within the first six hours of sepsis recognition significantly decreases in-hospital mortality. Initial management includes respiratory stabilization followed by aggressive fluid resuscitation. Vasopressor therapy is indicated when fluid resuscitation fails to restore adequate mean arterial pressure and organ perfusion. Early antibiotic therapy can improve clinical outcomes, and should be given within one hour of suspected sepsis. Blood product therapy may be required in some cases to correct coagulopathy and anemia, and to improve the central venous oxygen saturation. Insulin therapy may be required to maintain serum glucose levels less than 180 mg per dL. Initiation of low-dose corticosteroids may further improve survival in patients with septic shock that does not respond to vasopressor therapy. Timely initiation of evidence-based protocols should improve sepsis outcomes.

PMID:
23939605
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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