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PLoS One. 2013 Aug 6;8(8):e70565. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070565. Print 2013.

Curcumin protects microglia and primary rat cortical neurons against HIV-1 gp120-mediated inflammation and apoptosis.

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1
Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Abstract

Curcumin is a molecule found in turmeric root that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor properties and has been widely used as both an herbal drug and a food additive to treat or prevent neurodegenerative diseases. To explore whether curcumin is able to ameliorate HIV-1-associated neurotoxicity, we treated a murine microglial cell line (N9) and primary rat cortical neurons with curcumin in the presence or absence of neurotoxic HIV-1 gp120 (V3 loop) protein. We found that HIV-1 gp120 profoundly induced N9 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). HIV-1 gp120 also induced apoptosis of primary rat cortical neurons. Curcumin exerted a powerful inhibitory effect against HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal damage, reducing the production of ROS, TNF-α and MCP-1 by N9 cells and inhibiting apoptosis of primary rat cortical neurons. Curcumin may exert its biological activities through inhibition of the delayed rectification and transient outward potassium (K(+)) current, as curcumin effectively reduced HIV-1 gp120-mediated elevation of the delayed rectification and transient outward K(+) channel current in neurons. We conclude that HIV-1 gp120 increases ROS, TNF-α and MCP-1 production in microglia, and induces cortical neuron apoptosis by affecting the delayed rectification and transient outward K(+) channel current. Curcumin reduces production of ROS and inflammatory mediators in HIV-1-gp120-stimulated microglia, and protects cortical neurons against HIV-1-mediated apoptosis, most likely through inhibition of HIV-1 gp120-induced elevation of the delayed rectification and transient outward K(+) current.

PMID:
23936448
PMCID:
PMC3735595
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0070565
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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