Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
PLoS One. 2013 Jul 30;8(7):e65174. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065174. Print 2013.

The age-specific quantitative effects of metabolic risk factors on cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a pooled analysis.

Collaborators (289)

Jørgensen T, Borch-Johnson K, Nissinen A, Pekkanen J, Tuomilehto J, Pyörälä M, Pyörälä K, Tuomilehto J, Lindström J, Tuomilehto J, Laatikainen T, Peltonen M, Lindström J, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Rajala U, Laakso M, Tilvis R, Tuomilehto J, Garancini MP, Calori G, Ruotolo G, Mannino S, Villa M, Pajak A, Kawalec E, Nilsson PM, Berglund G, Söderberg S, Eliasson M, Zethelius B, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Stehouwer CD, Unwin N, Ahmad N, Alberti KG, Hayes L, Morris R, Yudkin J, Gould M, Haines A, Ford CE, Pressel SL, Jungner I, Walldius G, Folsom AR, Couper D, Stevens J, Selvin E, Panagiotakos D, Pitsavos C, Chrysohoou C, Stefanadis C, Atkins R, Barr EL, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Knuiman MW, Whincup PH, Wannamethee SG, Morris RW, Kiechl S, Willeit J, Oberhollenzer F, Mayr A, Wald N, Ebrahim S, Lawlor DA, Yarnell JW, Gallacher J, Casiglia E, Tikhonoff V, Nietert PJ, Sutherland SE, Bachman DL, Keil JE, Mukamal KJ, Kizer JR, de Boer IH, Tybjærg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG, Frikke-Schmidt R, Benn M, Giampaoli S, Palmieri L, Panico S, Vanuzzo D, Pilotto L, Gömez de la Cámara A, Herrera MA, Simons L, McCallum J, Friedlander Y, Price J, McLachlan S, Lee AJ, Taylor JO, Guralnik JM, Wallace RB, Guralnik JM, Phillips CL, Blazer DG, Guralnik JM, Phillips CL, Guralnik JM, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Brenner H, Schöttker B, Müller H, Rothenbacher D, Jansson JH, Wennberg P, Nissinen A, Donfrancesco C, Giampaoli S, Salomaa V, Harald K, Jousilahti PR, Vartiainen E, D' Agostino RB Sr, Vasan RS, Fox CS, Pencina MJ, Bladbjerg EM, Jørgensen T, Møller L, Jespersen J, Dankner R, Chetrit A, Lubin F, Wilhelmsen L, Eriksson H, Welin L, Rosengren A, Wilhelmsen L, Lappas G, Eriksson H, Björkelund C, Lissner L, Bengtsson C, Cremer P, Nagel D, Strandberg TE, Salomaa V, Tilvis RS, Miettinen TA, Pai JK, Strandberg TE, Doi Y, Ninomiya T, Rodriguez B, Dekker JM, Nijpels G, Iso H, Kitamura A, Yamagishi K, Noda H, Kauhanen J, Salonen JT, Deeg D, Meade TW, Cooper JA, Hedblad B, Berglund G, Engstro G, Folsom AR, Psaty BM, Shea SJ, Cushman M, Do A, Koenig W, Meisinger C, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Lappas G, Fletcher A, Kuller LH, Grandits G, Selmer R, Tverdal A, Nystad W, Gillum RF, Mussolino M, Rimm EB, Pai JK, Salomaa V, Harald K, Jousilahti PR, Vartiainen E, Meade TW, Cooper JA, Bauer KA, Davidson KW, Kirkland S, Shaffer JA, Korin MR, Kitamura A, Iso H, Sato S, Holme I, Tverdal A, Nystad W, Nakagawa H, Miura K, Ducimetiere P, Jouven X, Hillege HL, Crespo CJ, Garcia-Palmieri MR, Amouyel P, Arveiler D, Evans A, Ferrie J, Sattar N, Cantin B, Lamarche B, Barrett-Connor E, Wingard DL, Bettencourt R, Gudnason V, Aspelund T, Sigurdsson G, Thorsson B, Witteman JC, Ikram MA, Franco OH, Hofman A, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Tavendale R, Woodward M, Zhang Y, Best LG, Umans J, Ben-Shlomo Y, Davey-Smith G, Onat A, Nakagawa H, Sakurai M, Nakamura K, Morikawa Y, Meade TW, Njølstad I, Mathiesen EB, Løchen ML, Wilsgaard T, Gaziano JM, Stampfer M, Ridker PM, Ulmer H, Nagel G, Concin H, Tosetto A, Rodeghiero F, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Manson JE, Howard BV, Marmot M, Clarke R, Collins R, Fletcher A, Brunner EJ, Shipley M, Ridker PM, Buring J, Shepherd J, Cobbe SM, Ford I, Jukema JW, Marín Ibañez A, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D, Alexander M, Butterworth A, Collins R, Di Angelantonio E, Gao P, Kaptoge S, Lewington S, Pennells L, Thompson SG, Walker M, Watson S, White IR, Wood AM, Wormser D, Danesh J, Ärnlöv J, Sundström J, Ingelsson E.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not available.

METHODS:

We reviewed large cohort pooling projects, evaluating effects of baseline or usual exposure to metabolic risks on ischemic heart disease (IHD), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), stroke, diabetes, and, as relevant selected other CVDs, after adjusting for important confounders. We pooled all data to estimate relative risks (RRs) for each risk factor and examined effect modification by age or other factors, using random effects models.

RESULTS:

Across all risk factors, an average of 123 cohorts provided data on 1.4 million individuals and 52,000 CVD events. Each metabolic risk factor was robustly related to CVD. At the baseline age of 55-64 years, the RR for 10 mmHg higher SBP was largest for HHD (2.16; 95% CI 2.09-2.24), followed by effects on both stroke subtypes (1.66; 1.39-1.98 for hemorrhagic stroke and 1.63; 1.57-1.69 for ischemic stroke). In the same age group, RRs for 1 mmol/L higher TC were 1.44 (1.29-1.61) for IHD and 1.20 (1.15-1.25) for ischemic stroke. The RRs for 5 kg/m(2) higher BMI for ages 55-64 ranged from 2.32 (2.04-2.63) for diabetes, to 1.44 (1.40-1.48) for IHD. For 1 mmol/L higher FPG, RRs in this age group were 1.18 (1.08-1.29) for IHD and 1.14 (1.01-1.29) for total stroke. For all risk factors, proportional effects declined with age, were generally consistent by sex, and differed by region in only a few age groups for certain risk factor-disease pairs.

CONCLUSION:

Our results provide robust, comparable and precise estimates of the effects of major metabolic risk factors on CVD and diabetes by age group.

PMID:
23935815
PMCID:
PMC3728292
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0065174
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center