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Addict Behav. 2013 Nov;38(11):2729-35. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.07.006. Epub 2013 Jul 20.

Hookah, cigarette, and marijuana use: a prospective study of smoking behaviors among first-year college women.

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Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, USA.


Better understanding of the temporal sequence of hookah, cigarette, and marijuana use will help to inform smoking prevention efforts. To address this gap in the literature, we assessed all three of these smoking behaviors in a sample of 424 first-year college women. Using a longitudinal design, we investigated whether hookah use predicts initiating/resuming cigarette and/or initiating marijuana use, and whether cigarette and/or marijuana use predicts initiating hookah use. Participants (67% White, M age = 18.1 years) completed nine monthly surveys. The initial (i.e., baseline) survey assessed demographics, sensation-seeking, impulsivity, and pre-college substance use. Follow-up surveys assessed past-month substance use; outcomes were initiating/resuming cigarette use, initiating marijuana use, and initiating hookah use during the first year of college. We controlled for sensation-seeking, impulsivity, binge drinking, and other smoking behaviors in our multivariate logistic regression models. The results showed that (a) pre-college hookah use predicted initiating/resuming cigarette use; (b) pre-college marijuana use predicted initiation of hookah tobacco smoking; and (c) pre-college cigarette use predicted neither hookah nor marijuana initiation. The findings highlight the co-occurrence of smoking behaviors as well as the need for bundling preventive interventions so that they address hookah, cigarette, and marijuana use.


College students; Hookah; Marijuana; Tobacco; Waterpipe

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