Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Mol Immunol. 2013 Dec;56(4):705-19. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2013.07.010. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

The antigenic architecture of the hemagglutinin of influenza H5N1 viruses.

Author information

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Electronic address:


Human infection with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 is associated with a high mortality and morbidity. H5N1 continues to transmit from poultry to the human population, raising serious concerns about its pandemic potential. Current influenza H5N1 vaccines are based upon the elicitation of a neutralizing antibody (Ab) response against the major epitope regions of the viral surface glycoprotein, hemagglutinin (HA). However, antigenic drift mutations in immune-dominant regions on the HA structure allow the virus to escape Ab neutralization. Epitope mapping using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAb) helps define mechanisms of antigenic drift, neutralizing escape and can facilitate pre-pandemic vaccine design. This review explores the current knowledge base of the antigenic sites of the H5N1 HA molecule. The relationship between the epitope architecture of the H5N1 HA, antigenic evolution of the different H5N1 lineages and the antigenic complexity of the H5N1 virus lineages that constitute potential pandemic strains are discussed in detail.


CDC; Centre for Disease Control; Clade; ELISA; Epitope mapping; FDA; Federal Drug Administration; GFPDL; Genome Fragment Phage Display Libraries; H5N1; HA; HAMA; HI; Hemagglutinin; Monoclonal antibody; NA; RBS; RPL; SPR; Surface Plasmon Resonance; VLP; WHO; World Health Organization; aa; amino acid; enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay; hemagglutination inhibition; hemagglutinin; human anti-mouse-antibody; mAbs; monoclonal antibodies; neuraminidase; random phage display library; receptor binding site; virus-like particle

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center