Send to

Choose Destination
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Sep;23(9):799-807. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2013.05.002. Epub 2013 Aug 9.

Managing the residual cardiovascular disease risk associated with HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides in statin-treated patients: a clinical update.

Author information

Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center Zagreb, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Kispaticeva 12, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address:


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a significant cause of death in Europe. In addition to patients with proven CVD, those with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at a particularly high-risk of CVD and associated mortality. Treatment for dyslipidaemia, a principal risk factor for CVD, remains a healthcare priority; evidence supports the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as the primary objective of dyslipidaemia management. While statins are the treatment of choice for lowering LDL-C in the majority of patients, including those with T2D, many patients retain a high CVD risk despite achieving the recommended LDL-C targets with statins. This 'residual risk' is mainly due to elevated triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Following statin therapy optimisation additional pharmacotherapy should be considered as part of a multifaceted approach to risk reduction. Fibrates (especially fenofibrate) are the principal agents recommended for add-on therapy to treat elevated TG or low HDL-C levels. Currently, the strongest evidence of benefit is for the addition of fenofibrate to statin treatment in high-risk patients with T2D and dyslipidaemia. An alternative approach is the addition of agents to reduce LDL-C beyond the levels attainable with statin monotherapy. Here, addition of fibrates and niacin to statin therapy is discussed, and novel approaches being developed for HDL-C and TG management, including cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors, Apo A-1 analogues, mipomersen, lomitapide and monoclonal antibodies against PCSK9, are reviewed.


ACCORD; AIM-HIGH; ARBITER; Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; Arterial Biology for the Investigation of the Treatment Effects of Reducing Cholesterol; Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome with Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes; BIP; Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention; CTT; Cardiovascular diseases; Cholesterol Treatment Trialists; EAS; ERASE; ESC; Effect of reconstituted HDL on Atherosclerosis-Safety and Efficacy; European Atherosclerosis Society; European Society of Cardiology; FIELD; Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes; Fibrates; HPS2-THRIVE; Heart Protection Study 2: Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events; Hypertriglyceridaemia; ILLUMINATE; Investigation of Lipid Level Management to Understand its Impact in Atherosclerotic Events; Nicotinic acid; SCORE; Statins; Study of the Effect of Dalcetrapib on Atherosclerotic Disease in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease; Systemic Coronary Risk Estimation; Triglycerides; dal-OUTCOMES

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center