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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013 Nov;24(11):1863-71. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2013030203. Epub 2013 Aug 8.

Active vitamin D treatment for reduction of residual proteinuria: a systematic review.

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Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands;


Despite renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade, which retards progression of CKD by reducing proteinuria, many patients with CKD have residual proteinuria, an independent risk factor for disease progression. We aimed to address whether active vitamin D analogs reduce residual proteinuria. We systematically searched for trials published between 1950 and September of 2012 in the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. All randomized controlled trials of vitamin D analogs in patients with CKD that reported an effect on proteinuria with sample size≥50 were selected. Mean differences of proteinuria change over time and odds ratios for reaching ≥15% proteinuria decrease from baseline to last measurement were synthesized under a random effects model. From 907 citations retrieved, six studies (four studies with paricalcitol and two studies with calcitriol) providing data for 688 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Most patients (84%) used an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker throughout the study. Active vitamin D analogs reduced proteinuria (weighted mean difference from baseline to last measurement was -16% [95% CI, -13% to -18%]) compared with controls (+6% [95% CI, 0% to +12%]; P<0.001). Proteinuria reduction was achieved more commonly in patients treated with an active vitamin D analog (204/390 patients) than control patients (86/298 patients; OR, 2.72 [95% CI, 1.82 to 4.07]; P<0.001). Thus, active vitamin D analogs may further reduce proteinuria in CKD patients in addition to current regimens. Future studies should address whether vitamin D therapy also retards progressive renal functional decline.

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