Send to

Choose Destination
Eye (Lond). 2013 Nov;27(11):1243-8. doi: 10.1038/eye.2013.173. Epub 2013 Aug 9.

Influence of stereopsis and abnormal binocular vision on ocular and systemic discomfort while watching 3D television.

Author information

Department of Ophthalmology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.



To evaluate the degree of three-dimensional (3D) perception and ocular and systemic discomfort in patients with abnormal binocular vision (ABV), and their relationship to stereoacuity while watching a 3D television (TV).


Patients with strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia older than 9 years were recruited for the ABV group (98 subjects). Normal volunteers were enrolled in the control group (32 subjects). Best-corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, and stereoacuity were measured. After watching 3D TV for 20 min, a survey was conducted to evaluate the degree of 3D perception, and ocular and systemic discomfort while watching 3D TV.


One hundred and thirty subjects were enrolled in this study. The ABV group included 49 patients with strabismus, 22 with amblyopia, and 27 with anisometropia. The ABV group showed worse stereoacuity at near and distant fixation (P<0.001). Ocular and systemic discomfort was, however, not different between the two groups. Fifty-three subjects in the ABV group and all subjects in the control group showed good stereopsis (60 s of arc or better at near), and they reported more dizziness, headache, eye fatigue, and pain (P<0.05) than the other 45 subjects with decreased stereopsis. The subjects with good stereopsis in the ABV group felt more eye fatigue than those in the control group (P=0.031). The subjects with decreased stereopsis showed more difficulty with 3D perception (P<0.001).


The subjects with abnormal stereopsis showed decreased 3D perception while watching 3D TV. However, ocular and systemic discomfort was more closely related to better stereopsis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center