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Age Ageing. 2014 Jan;43(1):31-7. doi: 10.1093/ageing/aft111. Epub 2013 Aug 8.

Predicting participation restriction in community-dwelling older men: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

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Musculoskeletal Division, The George Institute for Global Health, PO Box M201 Missenden Road, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia.



participation restriction, defined as 'problems an individual may experience in involvement in life situations' (e.g. work and leisure), reflects difficulty functioning at a societal level and is a key component of disability. Our objective was to describe changes in participation in older men over a 2-year period and to identify baseline variables associated with participation and change in participation over the 2-year period.


one thousand and three hundred and twenty-seven community-dwelling men aged 70 years or over who completed the baseline and 2-year follow-up phases of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project, a population-based cohort study in Sydney, Australia, were studied. Participation restriction and a range of other variables were measured using self-report and performance measures. Regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with participation and change in participation.


over the 2-year period, participation in life roles deteriorated in 47.3% (627/1,327) of men, stayed the same in 20.7% (275/1,327) and improved in the remainder (32.0%). Overall, there was a significant deterioration in participation (P < 0.001). Reduced participation at 2-year follow-up was significantly associated with the following baseline factors: age, more comorbidities, mild cognitive impairment or dementia, lower mood, weakness, slower gait, worse activities of daily living performance, driving and baseline participation score. These variables explained 56% of the variance in participation at 2 years.


participation in life roles worsened over a 2-year period in some community-dwelling older men. A number of associated factors were identified, which may provide targets for intervention to improve participation among older men.


aged; function; geriatric assessment; men; older people; participation

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