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Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2013 Apr;51(4):265-9.

[Retrospective analysis of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease deceased cases in Zhejiang Province].

[Article in Chinese]

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Institute for Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, China.



To understand the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) deceased cases.


Information of demographics, diagnosis and treatment, clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory test results, and epidemiological contact history of 72 HFMD cases who died between May 2008 and September 2011, in Zhejiang Province, were collected and analyzed.


The average age of the 72 cases was 1.8 years, 45 were males, accounting for 62.5%, 63 (87.5%) of the cases were scattered children. Eighteen counties reported 2 or more deaths, accounting for 46.1% (18/39) among the counties where the deaths were reported. The deaths occurred mainly in April to August, the peak occurred in May and June. Fever (98.4%, 63/64) and rash (95.1%, 58/61) were the most common symptoms, but the rash was not obvious at the first diagnosis. Fever occurred before the rash (79.0%, 49/62), persisted for 4 days in average. Vomiting (71.9%, 46/64), dyspnea (65.6%, 42/64), cyanosis (53.1%, 34/64) and impaired consciousness (51.6%, 33/64) were often seen among the cases; 53.1% (34/64) cases went to see the doctor on the first day, but 82.5%(52/63)cases were misdiagnosed. Time to diagnosis of HFMD was in average 3 days. About 3 to 4 days after the onset, the disease deteriorated sharply, deaths occurred within 1 day after admission in 78.9%(45/57)of the deceased cases; 85.0% (34/40) cases had high white blood cells level, mainly neutrophils increased, the ratio of neutrophil was more than 70% in 55.6% (15/27) of cases. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection was found in 93.3% (56/60) cases, the deceased cases often died of pulmonary hemorrhage (42.9%, 21/49) and encephalitis (34.7%, 17/49). The sanitary conditions of the cases' family were poor (65.5%, 36/55), but 73.3% (33/45) cases had no exposure history.


The HFMD deceased cases were mostly younger aged boys, scattered children, nonlocal-residents, and had poor sanitation. They were often infected with EV71, had high fever but had no typical rash, no clear exposure history, they had increased leukocyte, and were often misdiagnosed. Three or 4 days after onset, the disease deteriorated abruptly, most cases died within 1 week after onset. To decrease the HFMD mortality, early detection of severe cases should be stressed, and relative measures should be taken. The guardian should be aware of having good sanitary situation and healthy habits.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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