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J Acoust Soc Am. 2013 Aug;134(2):1598-609. doi: 10.1121/1.4812881.

Experimentally validated multiphysics computational model of focusing and shock wave formation in an electromagnetic lithotripter.

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Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 329 Phillips Hall, CB 3250, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.


A multiphysics computational model of the focusing of an acoustic pulse and subsequent shock wave formation that occurs during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is presented. In the electromagnetic lithotripter modeled in this work the focusing is achieved via a polystyrene acoustic lens. The transition of the acoustic pulse through the solid lens is modeled by the linear elasticity equations and the subsequent shock wave formation in water is modeled by the Euler equations with a Tait equation of state. Both sets of equations are solved simultaneously in subsets of a single computational domain within the BEARCLAW framework which uses a finite-volume Riemann solver approach. This model is first validated against experimental measurements with a standard (or original) lens design. The model is then used to successfully predict the effects of a lens modification in the form of an annular ring cut. A second model which includes a kidney stone simulant in the domain is also presented. Within the stone the linear elasticity equations incorporate a simple damage model.

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