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Hum Exp Toxicol. 2013 Dec;32(12):1292-304. doi: 10.1177/0960327113499047. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Carvacrol ameliorates thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity by abrogation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in liver of Wistar rats.

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Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis and Chemoprevention, Department of Medical Elementology and Toxicology, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Hamdard University, Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi, India.


The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of carvacrol against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in liver of Wistar rats. In this study, rats were subjected to concomitant prophylactic oral pretreatment of carvacrol (25 and 50 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.)) against the hepatotoxicity induced by intraperitoneal administration of TAA (300 mg kg(-1) b.w.). Efficacy of carvacrol against the hepatotoxicity was evaluated in terms of biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme activities, histopathological changes, and expressions of inflammation and apoptosis. Carvacrol pretreatment prevented deteriorative effects induced by TAA through a protective mechanism in a dose-dependent manner that involved reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. We found that the protective effect of carvacrol pretreatment is mediated by its inhibitory effect on nuclear factor kappa B activation, Bax and Bcl-2 expression, as well as by restoration of histopathological changes against TAA administration. We may suggest that carvacrol efficiently ameliorates liver injury caused by TAA.


Apoptosis; carvacrol; inflammation; oxidative stress; thioacetamide

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