Send to

Choose Destination
J Phys Chem A. 2013 Sep 5;117(35):8368-76. doi: 10.1021/jp404272e. Epub 2013 Aug 26.

Combined sulfur K-edge XANES-EXAFS study of the effect of protonation on the sulfate tetrahedron in solids and solutions.

Author information

Paul Scherrer Institut, General Energy Research, Laboratory for Bioenergy and Catalysis, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland.


Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to distinguish between aqueous and solid sulfates and to investigate changes in their speciation. Data have been collected for tetrahedrally coordinated S in K2SO4 and KHSO4 solids and aqueous solutions. With a first qualitative analysis of the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra, it has been observed that those for solids are much more structured and distinguishable from those of aqueous solutions. The protonation state has a strong effect on the white line of sulfates and has been assigned to the different charge delocalization in the samples, the effect of the solvating water molecules and multiple scattering effects. In the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra, the backscattering from the first O shell dominated the EXAFS fine structure function, χ(k), but the nonlinear multiple scattering contributions occurring in the first coordination shell are significant and must be considered in the EXAFS analysis. The intensity of these contributions strongly depend on the symmetry of the system. For a distorted tetrahedron, the intensity of the multiple scattering contributions is less than that found in a regular tetrahedron. The FEFF code has been used to model the contributions of the multiple-scattering processes. The observed experimental evidence in the XAS data can be used to distinguish between sulfates in solids and liquids. This is applicable to many chemical, geochemical, and biological systems.


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for American Chemical Society
Loading ...
Support Center