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Sci Rep. 2013;3:2375. doi: 10.1038/srep02375.

Induction of antiviral genes by the tumor microenvironment confers resistance to virotherapy.

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1
Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Abstract

Oncolytic viruses obliterate tumor cells in tissue culture but not against the same tumors in vivo. We report that macrophages can induce a powerfully protective antiviral state in ovarian and breast tumors, rendering them resistant to oncolytic virotherapy. These tumors have activated JAK/STAT pathways and expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) is upregulated. Gene expression profiling (GEP) of human primary ovarian and breast tumors confirmed constitutive activation of ISGs. The tumors were heavily infiltrated with CD68+ macrophages. Exposure of OV-susceptible tumor cell lines to conditioned media from RAW264.7 or primary macrophages activated antiviral ISGs, JAK/STAT signaling and an antiviral state. Anti-IFN antibodies and shRNA knockdown studies show that this effect is mediated by an extremely low concentration of macrophage-derived IFNβ. JAK inhibitors reversed the macrophage-induced antiviral state. This study points to a new role for tumor-associated macrophages in the induction of a constitutive antiviral state that shields tumors from viral attack.

PMID:
23921465
PMCID:
PMC3736178
DOI:
10.1038/srep02375
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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