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Parasit Vectors. 2013 Aug 6;6:223. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-223.

Mixed-function oxidases and esterases associated with permethrin, deltamethrin and bendiocarb resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in the south-north transect Benin, West Africa.



Insecticide resistance monitoring is essential to help national programmers to implement more effective and sustainable malaria control strategies in endemic countries. The current study aimed at an exploring the involvement of detoxifying enzymes in the insecticide phenotype resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l.from Benin, in order to guide future malaria vector control interventions.


Larvae and pupae of Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected from the breeding sites in Oueme, Atacora and Alibori provinces. CDC susceptibility tests were conducted on unfed female mosquitoes aged 2-5 days old. CDC bioassays were performed with stock solutions of permethrin (21.5 μg per bottle), deltamethrin (12.5 μg per bottle) and bendiocarb (12.5 μg per bottle). CDC biochemical assays using synergists were also conducted to assess the metabolic resistance.


The susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae Agbalilame and Kandi populations to permethrin and deltamethrin respectively, increased significantly when synergized by PBO, suggesting an implication of mono-oxygenases in resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to pyrethroid. Esterases may play a role in bendiocarb resistance in Anopheles gambiae Tanguieta.


Synergists partially restored susceptibility to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides and might help mitigate the impact of vector resistance in Anopheles gambiae Agbalilame, Kandi and Tanguieta populations. However, additional vector control tools are needed to further impact on malaria transmission in such settings.This will improve the implementation and management of future control programs against this important malaria vector in Benin and in Africa in general.

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