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Resuscitation. 2013 Dec;84(12):1734-40. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.07.023. Epub 2013 Aug 2.

Post-hypothermia fever is associated with increased mortality after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address: jbj@dadlnet.dk.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Post-cardiac arrest fever has been associated with adverse outcome before implementation of therapeutic hypothermia (TH), however the prognostic implications of post-hypothermia fever (PHF) in the era of modern post-resuscitation care including TH has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the study was to assess the prognostic implication of PHF in a large consecutive cohort of comatose survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) treated with TH.

METHODS:

In the period 2004-2010, a total of 270 patients resuscitated after OHCA and surviving a 24-h protocol of TH with a target temperature of 32-34°C were included. The population was stratified in two groups by median peak temperature (≥38.5°C) within 36h after rewarming: PHF and no-PHF. Primary endpoint was 30-days mortality and secondary endpoint was neurological outcome assessed by Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) at hospital discharge.

RESULTS:

PHF (≥38.5°C) was associated with a 36% 30-days mortality rate compared to 22% in patients without PHF, plog-rank=0.02, corresponding to an adjusted hazard rate (HR) of 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1-2.7), p=0.02). The maximum temperature (HR=2.0 per °C above 36.5°C (95% CI: 1.4-3.0), p=0.0005) and the duration of PHF (HR=1.6 per 8h (95% CI: 1.3-2.0), p<0.0001) were also independent predictors of 30-days mortality in multivariable models. Good neurological outcome (CPC1-2) versus unfavourable outcome (CPC3-5) at hospital discharge was found in 61% vs. 39% in the PHF group compared to 75% vs. 25% in the No PHF group, p=0.02.

CONCLUSIONS:

Post-hypothermia fever ≥38.5°C is associated with increased 30-days mortality, even after controlling for potential confounding factors. Avoidance of PHF as a therapeutic target should be evaluated in prospective randomized trials.

KEYWORDS:

Fever; Mortality; Neurological outcome; Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; Therapeutic hypothermia

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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