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Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2013 Dec;25(6):717-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ceb.2013.07.010. Epub 2013 Aug 2.

Start and the restriction point.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, United States.

Abstract

Commitment to division requires that cells sense, interpret, and respond appropriately to multiple signals. In most eukaryotes, cells commit to division in G1 before DNA replication. Beyond a point, known as Start in yeast and the restriction point in mammals, cells will proceed through the cell cycle despite changes in upstream signals. In metazoans, misregulated G1 control can lead to developmental problems or disease, so it is important to understand how cells decipher the myriad external and internal signals that contribute to the fundamental all-or-none decision to divide. Extensive study of G1 control in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mammalian culture systems has revealed highly similar networks regulating commitment. However, protein sequences of functional orthologs often indicate a total lack of conservation suggesting significant evolution of G1 control. Here, we review recent studies defining the conserved and diverged features of G1 control and highlight systems-level aspects that may be common to other biological regulatory networks.

PMID:
23916770
PMCID:
PMC3836907
DOI:
10.1016/j.ceb.2013.07.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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