Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Eur J Pharm Sci. 2013 Nov 20;50(3-4):290-302. doi: 10.1016/j.ejps.2013.07.012. Epub 2013 Jul 31.

A semi-physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model characterizing mechanism-based auto-inhibition to predict stereoselective pharmacokinetics of verapamil and its metabolite norverapamil in human.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China; Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Hutchison Medipharma Ltd., Shanghai, China.

Abstract

Verapamil and its major metabolite norverapamil were identified to be both mechanism-based inhibitors and substrates of CYP3A and reported to have non-linear pharmacokinetics in clinic. Metabolic clearances of verapamil and norverapmil as well as their effects on CYP3A activity were firstly measured in pooled human liver microsomes. The results showed that S-isomers were more preferential to be metabolized than R-isomers for both verapamil and norverapamil, and their inhibitory effects on CYP3A activity were also stereoselective with S-isomers more potent than R-isomers. A semi-physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (semi-PBPK) characterizing mechanism-based auto-inhibition was developed to predict the stereoselective pharmacokinetic profiles of verapamil and norverapamil following single or multiple oral doses. Good simulation was obtained, which indicated that the developed semi-PBPK model can simultaneously predict pharmacokinetic profiles of S-verapamil, R-verapamil, S-norverapamil and R-norverapamil. Contributions of auto-inhibition to verapamil and norverapamil accumulation were also investigated following the 38th oral dose of verapamil sustained-release tablet (240mg once daily). The predicted accumulation ratio was about 1.3-1.5 fold, which was close to the observed data of 1.4-2.1-fold. Finally, the developed semi-PBPK model was further applied to predict drug-drug interactions (DDI) between verapamil and other three CYP3A substrates including midazolam, simvastatin, and cyclosporine A. Successful prediction was also obtained, which indicated that the developed semi-PBPK model incorporating auto-inhibition also showed great advantage on DDI prediction with CYP3A substrates.

KEYWORDS:

Auto-inhibition; CYP3A; Drug–drug interaction; Semi-physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model; Stereoselective pharmacokinetics; Verapamil

PMID:
23916407
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejps.2013.07.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center