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Coll Antropol. 2013 May;37 Suppl 2:139-45.

Spinal deformities among pupils - A growing issue.

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Technical College in Bjelovar, Specialist Programme of Study in Nursing, Bjelovar, Croatia.


This paper presents data obtained by somatic examination of pupils in the 1st, 5th and 8th grade of elementary school in the area of the Town of Split in the period of three school years. There was a corresponding increase in bad posture, over the school years observed, with an increase in kyphosis among pupils of both genders, The occurrence of kyphosis among boys ranged from 0.49% in the first grade, 0.88% in the fifth grade, to 2.11% in the eighth grade. The frequency of kyphosis was at first somewhat lower in girls; however, it significantly increased later, exceeding the frequency among male students. Thus, kyphosis in girls ranged from 0.42% in the first grade, 0.88% in the fifth grade, and even up to 4.60% in the eighth grade of elementary school. Therefore, the ratio of 14-year old girls to boys with kyphosis was 2.2:1. The frequency of scoliosis among boys ranged from 0.55% in the first grade, 2.13% in the fifth grade, and up to 3.01% in the eighth grade. Throughout the whole period, the frequency of this deformity was higher in girls than boys. Thus, scoliosis in female students ranged from 0.89% in the first grade, 3.23% in the fifth grade, and even up to 5.70% in the eighth grade. It is obvious that scoliosis as a deformity affects girls significantly more often than boys during the entire period of elementary school, and the ratio at the age of 14 is 1.8:1.

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