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Carbohydr Polym. 2013 Sep 12;97(2):587-96. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2013.05.023. Epub 2013 May 21.

Anionic carbohydrate-containing chitosan scaffolds for bone regeneration.

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  • 1Division of Advanced Prosthodontics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States.


Scaffolds derived from naturally occurring polysaccharides have attracted significant interest in bone tissue engineering due to their excellent biocompatibility and hydrophilic nature favorable for cell attachment. In this study, we developed composite chitosan (CH) scaffolds containing anionic carbohydrate, such as chondroitin 4-sulfate (CS) or alginate (AG), with biomimetic apatite layer on their surfaces, and investigate their capacity to deliver progenitor cells (bone marrow stromal cells, BMSC) and model proteins with net-positive (histone) and net-negative charge (bovine serum albumin, BSA). The incorporation of CS or AG in CH scaffolds increased compressive modulus of the scaffolds and enhanced apatite formation. Initial burst release of histone was significantly higher than that of BSA from CH scaffold, while the addition of CS or AG in the scaffolds significantly reduced the initial burst release of histone, indicating strong electrostatic interaction between histone and negatively charged CS or AG. The apatite layer created on scaffold surfaces significantly reduced the initial burst release of both BSA and histone. Furthermore, apatite-coated scaffolds enhanced spreading, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of BMSC seeded on the scaffolds compared to non-coated scaffolds as assessed by live/dead and alamarBlue assays, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and Picrosirius red staining. This study suggests that apatite-coated CH/CS composite scaffolds have the potential as a promising osteogenic system for bone tissue engineering applications.


Alginate; Biomimetic apatite; Bone regeneration; Chitosan; Chondroitin sulfate; Scaffold

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