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Psychogeriatrics. 2013 Jun;13(2):63-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-8301.2012.00431.x.

The relationship between the diagnosis method of neuronal dysfunction (DIMENSION) and brain pathology in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

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Department of Biological Regulation, School of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.



To examine whether the diagnosis method of neuronal dysfunction (DIMENSION), a new electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis method, reflected pathological changes in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we conducted a comparative study of cerebrospinal fluid markers and single-photon emission computed tomography.


Subjects cincluded 32 patients in the early stages of AD with a Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24 (14 men, 18 women; mean age, 77.3 ± 9.2 years). Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from AD patients, and cerebrospinal fluid levels of phosphorylated tau protein (p-tau) 181 and amyloid β (Aβ) 42 were measured with sandwich ELISA. EEG recordings were performed for 5 min with the subjects awake in a resting state with their eyes closed. Then, the mean value of the EEG alpha dipolarity (Dα) and the standard deviation of the EEG alpha dipolarity (Dσ) were calculated with DIMENSION. Single-photon emission computed tomography analyses were also performed for comparison with DIMENSION measures.


Patients with parietal hypoperfusion had significantly increasing p-tau181, decreasing Dα, and increasing Dσ. In addition, there was a negative correlation between Dα and p-tau181, p-tau181/Aβ42, and a positive correlation between Dσ and p-tau181/Aβ42.


Dα and Dσ were related to cerebral hypoperfusion and p-tau181/Aβ42. DIMENSION was able to detect changes in the early-stage Alzheimer's brain, suggesting that it is possibility as a useful examination for early-stage AD with a difficult discrimination in clinical conditions. Moreover, EEG measurement is a quick and easy diagnostic test and is useful for repeated examinations.


Alzheimer's disease; CSF biomarker; DIMENSION; SPECT

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