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Addiction. 2013 Nov;108(11):2019-28. doi: 10.1111/add.12313. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Snus use and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HUNT3 study.

Author information

1
Department of Health Promotion and Development, Faculty of Psychology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Division of Mental Health, National Institute of Public Health, Bergen, Norway.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Snus, a form of smokeless tobacco, is increasingly popular in its traditional Nordic markets, and was recently launched commercially in the United States. We examined the cross-sectional associations between snus use and cardiovascular risk factors, and compared them with the corresponding associations of smoking.

DESIGN:

Cross-sectional study.

SETTING:

The HUNT3 general population survey, Nord-Trøndelag, Norway (2006-08).

PARTICIPANTS:

A general population sample of n = 25 163.

MEASUREMENTS:

Measured triglyceride,- glucose- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels, blood pressure and waist circumference, registry information on gender, age and education level, self-reported snus use, smoking, physical exercise and alcohol use.

FINDINGS:

In age- and gender-adjusted linear regression analyses, extensive snus use was associated with larger waist circumference (b = 1.65, 95% CI = 0.86, 2.43) and higher systolic blood pressure (b = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.48, 3.68), but with higher rather than lower levels of HDL-cholesterol (b = 1.66, 95% CI = 0.79, 2.53). These three differences remained significant after additional adjustment for smoking, education level, physical exercise and alcohol use. Smokers had higher triglyceride and lower HDL-cholesterol than snus users, but lower systolic blood pressure.

CONCLUSIONS:

After adjusting statistically for major confounding variables, Norwegians who use snus extensively have a mixed profile in terms of cardiovascular risk: slightly higher waist circumference and systolic blood pressure but also higher high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular risk; smokeless tobacco; smoking; snus

PMID:
23909909
DOI:
10.1111/add.12313
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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