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Circ Res. 2013 Aug 2;113(4):451-63. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.300627.

Current state of clinical translation of cardioprotective agents for acute myocardial infarction.

Author information

1
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Heart Institute, Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Angeles, CA 90017, USA. rkloner@goodsam.org

Abstract

There is continued interest in the concept of limiting myocardial infarct size with adjunctive agents administered along with reperfusion injury; however, there remains considerable controversy in the literature. The purpose of this article is to review the medical literature on clinical trials performed during the past 3 years that have attempted to reduce myocardial infarct size by administration of adjunctive therapies along with reperfusion therapy. A PubMed-driven literature search revealed a host of clinical trials focusing on the following prominent types of therapies: endogenous conditioning (postconditioning and remote ischemic conditioning); rapid cooling; pharmacological therapy (cyclosporine, abciximab, clopidogrel, tirofiban, erythropoietin, thrombus aspiration, adenosine, glucose-insulin-potassium, statins, antidiabetic agents, FX06, iron chelation, and ranolazine). Although there remains some controversy, quite a few of these studies showed that adjunctive therapy further reduced myocardial infarct size when coupled with reperfusion. Antiplatelet agents are emerging as some of the newest agents that seem to have cardioprotective capabilities. Postconditioning has become a bit more controversial in the clinical literature; remote conditioning, early and rapid cooling, adenosine, and ranolazine are intriguing therapies deserving of larger studies. Certain agents and maneuvers, such as erythropoietin, protein kinase C δ inhibitors, iron chelation, and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, perhaps should be retired. The correct adjunctive therapy administered along with reperfusion has the capability of further reducing myocardial injury during ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction.

KEYWORDS:

acute myocardial infarction; adenosine; adjunctive therapy; conditioning; infarct size; platelet aggregation inhibitors; reperfusion injury

PMID:
23908332
DOI:
10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.300627
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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