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Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2013 Jul;34(7):587-90. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-2727.2013.07.006.

[Organ toxicity and efficacy of high-dose daunorubicin-based chemotherapy in the treatment of acute leukemia].

[Article in Chinese]

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1
Institute of Hematology and Blood Diseases Hospital, PUMC & CAMS, Tianjin 300020, China.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the safety and therapeutic effect of high-dose daunorubicin-based (HD-DNR) chemotherapy in the treatment of acute leukemia (AL).

METHODS:

The clinical data of 25 AL patients, including 14 cases for induction chemotherapy, 8 for consolidation chemotherapy and 3 for reinduction therapy, which were treated with HD- DNR (DNR dosage of 90 mg/m(2)× 3 d) between June 2010 and August 2012 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed, the adverse reaction of chemotherapy, especially cardiac toxicity and therapeutic effect were evaluated.

RESULTS:

Most of the adverse reactions were mild, including cardiac toxicity, and no patient discontinued therapy because of HD-DNR related toxicities. Grade 3 or higher adverse reactions occurred only in the infection (56%) and diarrhea (12%). Withdrawal or dose reduction due to strong adverse reactions was not observed in all patients. Adverse reactions of infections (92%), lower ejection fraction(52.6%), diarrhea (48%), nausea (36%), vomiting (36%), dental ulcer (36%) and myocardial ischemia (32%) were relatively more common. The median time of neutrophil count reached to ≥ 0.5 × 10(9)/L and platelet ≥ 20 × 10(9)/L were both 21 days(ranged 9-31 and 9-38 days). Nine patients were complicated with infections before chemotherapy and 14 after chemotherapy, mainly occurred in gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. Gastrointestinal, liver and kidney toxicity was slight. The cardiac ejection decreased in 10 cases, but only 1 reached grade 2 without clinical symptoms. Of the 14 AL patients for induction chemotherapy, 13 achieved hematological complete remission. Eight patients received HD-DNR as consolidation chemotherapy remained complete remission, while 3 refractory/relapsed patients remained non-remission.

CONCLUSION:

The adverse reaction of HD-DNR based chemotherapy for AL treatment was mild, no obvious cardiac adverse reaction occurred. The treatment dose of DNR at 90 mg/m(2) × 3 d can be safely and effectively used to treat acute leukemia.

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