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Pol J Pathol. 2013 Jun;64(2):114-20.

Morphological characteristics of potentially malignant pulmonary nodules in high-risk male smokers detected in lung cancer screening trial in Cracow, Poland.

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  • 1Kinga Kiszka, Department of Radiology, John Paul II Hospital, Pradnicka 80, 31-202 Kracow, Poland, tel. +48 126142526, fax +48 126142500, e-mail:,


The purpose of this paper was to present morphological characteristics of potentially malignant nodules revealed in a group of male smokers aged 50-74 with a very high risk for developing lung cancer estimated in the study for lung cancer screening in Cracow (Poland). Nine hundred male smokers aged 50 to 74 years were invited to the study and were asked in questionnaires about e.g. smoking exposure history. Exclusion criteria included e.g. positive cancer history and chest computed tomography (CT) examination in the previous year. Based on CT results and characteristics of pulmonary nodules subjects were classified to group A (low risk), group B (indeterminate) and group C (high-risk individuals - required work-up). Final diagnosis was based on pathological results of postoperative material. Thirty-nine males of mean age 63.4 (standard deviation (SD): 6.69 years) revealed 41 potentially malignant pulmonary nodules in baseline screening. In 14 subjects 16 type C pulmonary nodules were histologically proved. Nine nodules were found to be benign lesions, while 7 nodules revealed malignant lung cancer: 5 cases of adenocarcinoma and 2 cases of adenosquamous carcinoma. We determined morphological characteristics of potentially malignant pulmonary nodules in 39 high-risk male smokers and proved lung cancer in 7 subjects.

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