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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Feb;210(2):99-106. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2013.07.025. Epub 2013 Jul 27.

Sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of refractory voiding and bowel dysfunction.

Author information

1
Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California Irvine, Orange, CA. Electronic address: knoblett@uci.edu.
2
Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California Irvine, Orange, CA.

Abstract

Sacral nerve stimulation, sometimes referred to as a "pacemaker for the bladder and bowels" delivers nonpainful, electrical pulses to the sacral nerves to improve or restore function. A relatively simple procedure works via a complex mechanism to modulate the reflexes that influence the bladder, bowels, sphincters, and pelvic floor. Current approved indications include urinary urge incontinence, urgency-frequency, nonobstructive urinary retention, and fecal incontinence. The history, mechanism of action, evolution, and landmark literature for this treatment modality are reviewed.

KEYWORDS:

incontinence; interstim; neuromodulation; sacral nerve stimulation

PMID:
23899452
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajog.2013.07.025
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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